About Namma Chamarajanagar
Chamarajanagar was earlier known as Arikottara. Chamaraja Wodeyar, the Wodeyar king of Mysooru was born here and hence this place was renamed after him. The geographical area of Chamarajanagar district is about 5,101 Km2. The district is located in the southern tip of Karnataka state and lies between the North latitude 11o 40'58'' and 12o 06'32'' and East longitude 76o 24'14''and
77o46'55''. It falls in the southern dry zone. Topography is undulating and mountainous with north south trending hill ranges of eastern ghats.
Being the southernmost district of Karnataka, Chamarajanagara district borders the state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. It borders Mysore district of Karnataka to the west and north, Mandya and Bengalore districts of Karnataka to the north-east, Dharmapuri district of Tamil Nadu to the east, Salem and Erode districts of Tamil Nadu to the south-east, Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu to the south and Wayanad district of Kerala to the south-west. Most of the district lies in the leeward region of the Nilgiris and consists of mainly semi- arid rain-dependent flatlands along with forested hills. Since 2000, the district has been subject to severe drought conditions and many of the labouring poor migrate to the
neighboring Mysore or to plantation belts of Coorg and Kerala in search of seasonal labour. Industrial activities are restricted only to Kollegal belt and with a narrow focus on sericulture development. With the decline of the sericulture industry several settlements such as Mullur, Mudigunda, Mamballi and Hanur have been subject to a process of deindustrialization.
Once the government initiates its development policies in some specific areas then the Chamarajanagar district will be a backbone of economy for Karnataka state.
Soil is one of the biotic factors support many forms of life on earth surface which formed by process of weathering over a long period of time. Soil forms based on physical, biological, and chemical modification of sediment or rock exposed at the earth surface.The Chamarajanagar district may be classified as partly maidan and general tableland with plain, undulating and mountainous. The southern and eastern ghats in the district converge into group of hills. The landmass of the area forms an undulating tableland and lofty mountain ranges covered with vast forests. Master slope runs from south to north towards Cauvery River. Normally the slopes are covered by debris and colluvium filled channels. The general elevation is 656.58m above msl. The Shivanasamudra island and Edacura village towards north of Kollegal taluk forms the important features formed due to meandering and confluence of Cauvery river. The soils of the district are derived mainly from Granitic gneisses and Charnockite rocks.
Geographically the taluk is covered by the rocks of Archean age i.e., granite, gneiss and schistose rock. The entire Gundlupet taluk comprise Granitic gneiss having the strike NNE and SSW direction. They comprise essentially gray to pink granite gneisses and the strike of lineation in gneisses is NW-SE with dip towards NE and the schistose rocks are seen on the north/south direction. The rocks are coarse to medium grained.
The grey gneisses are highly weathered, fractured and fissured up to an average depth of 8-10 m noticed near
Bandipura,Chikkati.The highly weathered Granite exposures were seen in the villages of Madahalli, Somahalli, Gundlupet, Seegavadi and Madapatna. The quartzite and banded iron formations were seen near Channamallipura and Sriramgudda near Gundlupet respectively. Dolerite dykes and quartz viens are common with variable strike directions and width. They are found in the village limits of Bandipur, Veeranapura and shivapura village.
They have a variable width of 5 to 15 m and extend over a distance of 2 to 3 k The major rock types of the area are Gneiss, Charnockite, Felsite porphyrities, Dolerite/Gabbro dykes, Granodiorite, Tonalite and Migmatitie gneiss, banded iron formation metapelites (Staurolite-Kyanite-Siliminite Schist), Amphibolites and hornblende Schist, Meta-ultra mafics, metapyroxinite, serpentinised Dunite and Peridotite, Gneisses, Amphibolite, Schists with intrusion of dykes with a mantle of different types of soils, which is the resultant of the weathering of these rocks, which play a significant role in the geomorphological units. Soil is a main component of land system, which provides a medium for water movement and plant growth. The recharge capacity and groundwater quality is decided by the soil types and their texture. Four types of soils exists in the study area such as Red sandy soil, Red loamy soil, deep black soil and Red gravely soil. Clayey Soil: Forms the major types of soils and occupies the largest area in the NW and Southern part of the Gundlupet taluk. These soils contain larger mixture of sand particles. The thickness varies from 1.0-5.0 meters.
The charnockite series includes rocks of many different types, some being felsic and rich in quartz and microcline, others
mafic and full of pyroxene and olivine, while there are also intermediate varieties corresponding mineralogically to norites, quartz-norites and diorites. A special feature, recurring in many members of the group, is the presence of strongly pleochroic, reddish or green hypersthene. They may be named by adding orthopyroxene or specifically hypersthene
to the normal igneous nomenclature (e.g. hypersthene-granite), but specific names are in widespread use such as norite, mangerite, enderbite, jotunite, farsundite, opdalite and charnockite (in the strict sense); equivalents of gabbro, monzonite, tonalite, monzodiorite, monzogranite, granodiorite and granite. While the granulite facies metamorphism is dated as 2.5 Ga (billion years ago) in Nilgiris, Shevroys, Madras (Chennai) regions, the granulite facies event transforming the granitic gneisses into charnockite in the southern part of the South Indian granulite terrain is dated as 550 Ma (million years ago). Although they are certainly for the most part igneous gneisses (or orthogneisses), rocks occur along with them, such as marbles, scapolite limestones, and corundum rocks, which were probably of sedimentary origin.
As the human population is increasing, demand for water resources is increasing. This leads to scarcity of water is varied in space and time. But the water availability on and below the surface water usable is below 3 percent is availability for use. As the human population is increasing the demand for water resources is increasing.
There are no perennial rivers flowing in the district where lift irrigation could be taken up on a large scale. However, the seasonal rivers like, Gundluhole and Suvarnavathi flow through Gundlupet and Kollegal taluks respectively where, small individual lift irrigation pumpsets with pipelines could be considered on both sides of these rivers depending on its feasibility.
With Chamarajanagar having erratic rainfall, high surface run-off due to undulating terrain and granite hills with poor percolation of rain water into the soil as also increasing ground water draft, the water table has been depleted in the last decade resulting in Kollegal taluk becoming Dark and Chamarajanagar Taluk Grey. The open wells, which once served as a major source of irrigation have either turned dry or have water only during monsoon months. As the state of development of ground water varied between 47 and 66% of net utilisable recharge, there exists scope for further installation of water lifting device such as electrical or diesel pumpsets and Minor Irrigation structures such as DW and BW in three taluks viz., Gundlupet, Yelandur and Chamarajanagar.
The Chamarajanagar has limited underground water resource due to lack of river and rainfall. The Harve and Haradanalli hobli of Chamarajanagar taluk has considered as a driest hoblies in the district. While in Harve and Haradanalli hobli the under ground water is depicted water that the underground water is deep compared to other hoblies in the district. The Yelandur taluk has got suffient water due to rainfall and population is sparse compared to other districts. But the Kollegal taluk has partially limited water resource, where the town and surrounding villages has more of water
resource, while other villages have scarcity of water.
The Chamarajanagar town does not have water resource; the water is supplied through the pipeline through Kabini River from Tirumakudalu Narasipur. The large area of Gundlupet taluk is covered by forest where the forest gets rainfall but the villages has limited water resource. As per the Government the ground water recharge is not carried out technically and not implemented.
A major portion of Chamarajanagar district is hilly and undulating terrain. The topographical conditions lead to high runoff. So, adopting water shed treatment is good option in augmenting the natural recharge. Due to the uneven topography, the irrigation is confined to intermountain valleys, resulting in densely spaced wells in a particular area, thus appears to be over exploited as in Kollegal (60% OE). These areas have to be studied in detail by collecting filed data which will
enable the ground water Resource Estimation and to implement special projects for new structures for ground water development. The Stage of ground water development as OE in Kollegal 60%, and semi critical in Gundlupet and CRNagar taluk (80% & 14%) demands department like CGWB to construct pizometers to monitor waterlevels on long term basis and draw up check measures if there is decline inground water level and quality. The present management practices for irrigation such as sprinklers, drip irrigation, underground channels etc., where the number of sprinklers and drip irrigation structures is to be increased for optimum use of available developed ground water depending upon cropping pattern. The villages located in hilly regions of the district facing drinking water scarcity. Special source finding projects may be taken up, and also construction of ARS, since these places are having enough scope for implementing artificial recharge structures to augment ground water. Some of the villages with satisfactory water supply system, facing drinking water scarcity for want of mechanical maintenance of defunct bore wells. So periodical checking of water supply system will improve the system efficiently. In addition to this, the abandoned bore well/dug wells can be utilised for recharging aquifers with surplus runoff during rainy days. Exploratory drilling in the district beyond 90.00mbgl is not reported.
Climate and Rainfall
The climate of Chamrajanagar district is quite moderate throughout the year with fairly hot summer and cold winter. March to May is summer months, where mean maximum temperatures ranges from 32.6°C to 34°C. June to September is the southwest monsoon period, October and November is the post monsoon retreating monsoon season with clear bright weather and during December to February weather
remains dry. The skies clouded or overcast during southwest monsoon. During October and November some of the depressions and cyclonic storms originates in Bay of Bengal, which passes through the district, causing wide spread heavy rains and high winds. The mean maximum temperature in the district is 34°C. and the mean minimum temperature is 16.4°C. during January month. Relative humidity ranges from 69 to 85% in the morning and in the evening it ranges from 21% to 70%. The wind speed ranges from 8.4 to 14.1 kmph. The potential evopo-transpiration in the district ranged from 106mm to 165mm/year.
The climate of the district is well suited for the development of plantation, horticulture and animal husbandry activities in all the four blocks of the district. In addition, the district also offers good scope for the development of sectors for small road transport operators, business and service activities. The district is one of the industrially backward among 27 districts of Karnataka. The district has potential for agro processing, small scale industries, khadi and village industries, handicrafts and handlooms.
Chamarajanagar district depends heavily on monsoon for agricultural operations. The normal rainfall in the District is 751 mm. Of the total 446 villages, 144 receive more than 950 mm of rainfall and 199 villages receive between 720 and 750 mm. The remaining villages receive less than 550 mm. There are no perennial rivers flowing in the district where lift irrigation could be taken up on a large scale.
However, the seasonal rivers like, Gundluhole and Suvarnavathi flow through Gundlupet and Kollegal taluks respectively where, small individual lift irrigation pumpsets with pipelines could be considered on both sides of these rivers depending on its feasibility. As per the latest ground water assessment data available from the Department of Mines and Geology (Ground Water), Gundlupet and Yelandur are categorised§ as White, Chamarajanagar as Grey, and Kollegal as Dark. Therefore, there is scope for further exploitation of ground water in the district, particularly in the taluks of Gundlupet and Yelandur and to some extent in Chamarajanagar.
With erratic rainfall, high surface run-off due to undulati ng terrain and granite hills with poor percolation of rain water into the soil as also increasing ground water draft, the water table has been depleted in the last decade resulting in Kollegal taluk becoming Dark and Chamarajanagar Taluk Grey. The open wells, which once served as a major source of irrigation have either turned dry or have water only during monsoon months.
The maximum number of feasible dug wells and borewells in the district is estimated at 2093 and 4432 respectively. As the state of development of ground water varied between 47 and 66% of net utilizable recharge, there exists scope for further installation of water lifting device such as electrical or diesel pumpsets and Minor Irrigation structures such as DW and BW in three taluks viz., Gundlupet, Yelandur and Chamarajanagar. In case of Kollegal, as the stage of development is 89%, there can be only replacement of old pumpsets which have outlived their useful life period and also switch-over from diesel to electric pump sets on account of electrification.
District ata Glance
Till 1997, Chamarajanagar district was part of Mysore district. This new district with four taluks was formed during 1997 after the reorganisation of districts in the state. The district comprises of four taluks namely Chamarajanagar, Kollegal, Yelandur and Gundlupet taluks. The district headquarters is Chamarajanagar town. Chamarajanagar District with a geographical area of 5685 square kms., constitute 2.96% of the states area.
The land holding pattern in the district indicates that small and marginal farmers account for 79% of the total land holdings with 45% of total land. Six percent of the farmers holding above 4 hectares account for 26% of land. While the remaining 15% farmers own 29% of the land. The average size of land holdings is 1.46 hectares as against the State average of 2.13 hectares
The district is rich in mineral resources. A survey conducted by the Department of Mines and Geology, a good number of mineral deposits are known to be available in Chamrajanagar and Kollegal taluks. The black granite, one of the high value granite is available in Chamarajanagar, Kollegal and Yelandur Taluks. The term "Granite" is derived from the Latin word "Granum" meaning "grain" because of its granular nature. Granite is an Igneous Stone, primarily made of Quartz (35%), Feldspar (45%) & Potassium.
Granite is a very strong and durable stone. It takes heavy gloss polish, popularly used as architectural stone for interior and exterior walls, floors and monumental stone. Quality Marble Exports is pioneer manufacturer and supplier of wholesale granite tiles, granite floor tiles, granite slabs and artifacts.Other mineral such as Manganese Garnet, Danite, Amphibolite,Cardied, White Stone, Manganese Quartz, Sagwandiet, Gabro, Dyorite, Dollarite, Corrundum, Kankar etc. are some of the minerals available in this Taluk.
This could be a big source of business opportunity if taken in a large scale, there is abundant market for Jewelry and that too for quartz based jewels, these types of jewels are not only used as gems stones but also used for scientific purpose also. Likewise there are other Minerals such as Granites and building stones which can be looked as huge potential for investments.
In 2011, Chamarajanagar had population of 1,020,962 of which male and female were 513,359 and 507,603 respectively. In 2001 census, Chamarajanagar had a population of 965,462 of which males were 489,940 and remaining 475,522 were females. Chamarajanagar District population constituted 1.67 percent of total Maharashtra population. In 2001 census, this figure for Chamarajanagar District was at 1.83 percent of Maharashtra population.
There was change of 5.75 percent in the population compared to population as per 2001. In the previous census of India 2001, Chamarajanagar District recorded increase of 9.29 percent to its population compared to 1991.
The initial provisional data released by census India 2011, shows that density of Chamarajanagar district for 2011 is 200 people per sq. km. In 2001, Chamarajanagar district density was at 189 people per sq. km. Chamarajanagar district administers 5,102 square kilometers of areas.
Average literacy rate of Chamarajanagar in 2011 were 61.12 compared to 50.87 of 2001. If things are looked out at gender wise, male and female literacy were 67.88 and 54.32 respectively. For 2001 census, same figures stood at 59.03 and 42.48 in Chamarajanagar District. Total literate in Chamarajanagar District were 566,076 of which male and female were 315,321 and 250,755 respectively. In 2001, Chamarajanagar District had 432,700 in its district.
Chamarajanagar Child Population 2011
In census enumeration, data regarding child under 0-6 age were also collected for all districts including Chamarajanagar. There were total 94,859 children under age of 0-6 against 114,937 of 2001 census. Of total 94,859 male and female were 48,854 and 46,005 respectively. Child Sex Ratio as per census 2011 was 942 compared to 964 of census 2001. In 2011, Children under 0-6 formed 9.29 percent of Chamarajanagar District compared to 11.90 percent of 2001. There was net change of -2.61 percent in this compared to previous census of India.
Chamarajanagar District Urban Population 2011
Out of the total Chamarajanagar population for 2011 census, 17.17 percent lives in urban regions of district. In total 175,293 people lives in urban areas of which males are 87,679 and females are 87,614. Sex Ratio in urban region of Chamarajanagar district is 999 as per 2011 census data. Similarly child sex ratio in Chamarajanagar district was 935 in 2011 census. Child population (0-
6) in urban region was 16,825 of which males and females were 8,695 and 8,130. This child population figure of Chamarajanagar district is 9.92 % of total urban population. Average literacy rate in Chamarajanagar district as per census 2011 is 78.60 % of which males and females are 83.72 % and 73.52 % literates respectively. In actual number 124,555 people are literate in urban region of which males and females are 66,122 and 58,433 respectively.
Chamarajanagar District Rural Population 2011
As per 2011 census, 82.83 % population of Chamarajanagar districts lives in rural areas of villages. The total Chamarajanagar district population living in rural areas is 845,669 of which males and females are 425,680 and 419,989 respectively. In rural areas of Chamarajanagar district, sex ratio is 987 females per 1000 males. If child sex ratio data of Chamarajanagar district is considered, figure is 943 girls per 1000 boys. Child population in the age 0-6 is 78,034 in rural areas of which males were 40,159 and females were 37,875. The child population comprises 9.43 % of total rural population of Chamarajanagar district. Literacy rate in rural areas of Chamarajanagar district is 57.52 % as per census data 2011. Gender wise, male and female literacy stood at 64.64 and 50.33 percent respectively. In total, 441,521 people were literate of which males and females were 249,199 and 192,322 respectively. All details regarding Chamarajanagar District have been processed by us after receiving from Govt. of India. We are not responsible for errors to population census details of Chamarajanagar District.
Many languages are spoken within the district. Kannada being the state language of Karnataka, is the main language in Chamarajanagar district. Tamil is a minor language within the district but of great importance in many areas within the district. Kollegal taluk has a great deal of Tamils, and was originally part of the Tamil Nadu state, in the Salem District. Chamarajanagar is known for a good extent of forest land within its boundaries. Hence, it has a very high population of forest-dwelling tribals - Soligas, Jenu Kurubas, Betta Kurubas. Most of these tribes inhabit the forest of B R Hills, Malai-Mahadeswara Hills, and Bandipur National Park. All of these are protected areas. These tribals all have their own dialect, usually with a strong Tamil influence. .
Religious and Tourist Sites
Chamarajanagar is rich with religious sites of many religions. The temple in the MM Hills (Malemahadeshwara Betta) is probably the most famous one. The yearly car festival (jatre) at the MM Hills brings many devotees. It is situated within the MM Hills Reserve Forest, not very far from where the river Cauvery flows into Tamil Nadu. .
The district has its share of natural beauty. Local people and devotees revel in the beauty of the temples of the BR Hills, a wildlife sanctuary and the MM Hills.
Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary, Biligirirangana Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Kaveri Fishing Camp, Mahadeswara Hills.
Chamarajeshwara Temple :
The biggest temple in Chamarajanagara, which was built during end of 19th Century. Temple resembles Nanjanagudu Srikanteswara temple and has a very big gopura.
MM Hills :
Malai Mahadeshwara Hills (MM Hills), is an important Shaiva pilgrimage centre in the Kollegala Taluk. The yearly chariot festival (locally called 'jatre') at the MM Hills brings many devotees. The temple is situated within the MM Hills Reserve Forest, not very far from where the river Kaveri flows into Tamil Nadu.
BR Hills :
Biligiri Rangana Betta (BR Hills), refers to a cliff in the BR Hills range which is a North-South range in the Yelandur Taluk. It is famous for the Ranganathaswamy temple.
Kanakagiri in Chamarajanagara Taluk is a famous Jain pilgrim centre. It is described as Hemanga Desha in ancient works and is said that Bhagwan Sri Mahavira visited this place during his visit to South India.
Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta :
Himavad Gopalaswamy Betta (GS Betta is a hill near the Bandipura Wildlife Sanctuary in the Gundlupete Taluk. It is famous for the Gopalaswamy temple which is atop the hill. Gopalaswamy is an incarnation of the Hindu God Krishna.
Bandipura is a well known National Park in the Gundlupete Taluk straddling the state's border with Tamil Nadu. It is also a tiger reserve and part of the Project Tiger initiative. Apart from tiger, the other animals found here include gaur, elephant, leopard and wild dogs. It is contiguous with the Mudumalai wildlife sanctuary which is across the state border in Tamil Nadu.
BR Hills :
Apart from being a religious centre, BR Hills is also the location of the BR Hills Wildlife Sanctuary. It is spread over an area of 539.52 sq. km. Some of the important animals found here are tigers, sloth bears, elephants and gaurs.
Dodda Sampige Mara:
Located 4 km from BR Hills, Dodda Sampige Mara is the location where a large Champaka tree, 34 mts in height and 20 mts of girth is present. Near its trunk, there are many Shiva Lingas (around 100) which are worshipped by the pilgrims who come here. Near the tree flows the stream Bhargavi which is a tributary of Kaveri. This stream is supposed to be an incarnation of Renuka, the wife of the revered Hindu sage, Jamadagni.
Hogenakal is a famous waterfall where the river Kaveri cascades down a gorge to give a breathtaking view. It is in the Kollegala Taluk and right on the border between the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.